Getting started with research on AI fairness in medical imaging

FAIMI has put together this resource page to help researchers get started with research on the fairness of AI for medical imaging. We would like to see this as an organically evolving resource, so please get in touch with us if you have any suggestions for additions or modifications.


The literature on AI fairness in medical imaging is growing rapidly, and we do not attempt to provide an exhaustive list of related publications here. Rather, we list a few key references for specific areas of fairness research that can act as starting points for your own literature searches.

Review papers on AI fairness

Seminal works on AI fairness

Perspectives on what constitutes AI fairness

Shortcut learning, models recognizing sensitive patient attributes, and fairness in medical AI

Quantitative comparisons

Applied AI fairness research in medical imaging

AI fairness for chest x-rays

AI fairness in image reconstruction

AI fairness for dermatology images

AI fairness for brain MRI:

AI fairness for cardiac MRI:

AI fairness for ophthalmology:

AI fairness for breast DCE-MRI:

AI fairness for medical image segmentation:


Software toolkits

Although one can investigate fairness issues with standard software environments and packages, a number of researchers have made specialised toolkits aimed at facilitating fairness and bias assessments, and you may find it more efficient to make use of one of these.

Initiatives, guidelines and legislation

Below are some resources related to data collection and research initiatives, guidelines on fairness in AI and information about government efforts to legislate on the use of AI, many of which include reference to fairness and bias.



Legislation/white papers on regulation of AI:


Unfortunately, most currently available databases of medical imaging data do not feature associated demographic information such as sex and race, which is essential for much work in fairness of AI. Below we have put together a summary of the most commonly used datasets that do feature such information.